Logistics: China And The Next Generation
Logistics: China And The Next Generation
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The Chinese Navy reached another milestone in August 2018 when they began retiring their first generation of replenishment (at sea resupply) ships. The retired ship was the Type 905 Hongzehu that entered service in 1980 to support tracking ships sent deep into the Pacific to collect information on Chinese ICBM tests. The warheads of these ICBMs were filled with instruments and the tracking ships collected that information. The Type 905s were 21,000 ton ships that carried 10,500 tons of fuel, 1,000 tons of diesel, 400 tons of water and 50 tons of refrigerated items (mainly food, but also medicine). By the 1990s the Type 905s were primarily resupplying destroyers on long voyages. In 2008 the Type 905s became regular participants in the four month deployments of Chinese warships (usually a destroyer and a frigate) and a replenishment ship to spend three months with the international anti-piracy patrol off Somalia.
A single Type 905 could keep three destroyers supplied via at-sea refueling and was able to keep two warships operating off Somalia (although the 905s would make trips to ports to get more supplies itself). The Type 905s also had a helicopter pad and were armed with four twin-37mm anti-aircraft guns.
Four 905s entered service in the 1980s but two were disposed of (one became a civilian tanker while the other went to Pakistan as a replenishment ship.) At the time the Chinese Navy had little use for at sea replenishment. In the 1990s China developed and put into service two Type 908 replenishment ships which had twice the capacity of the Type 905s and are still in service. The experience with the Type 905 and 901 ships led to mass production of Type 903 ships. The first of these entered service in 2004, eight have been built so far and more are apparently planned.
In August 2017 China put “Hulun Lake”, its first Type 901 fast replenishment ship into service. This was a big deal. Chinese Navy officials noted that this fast supply vessel would, as expected, enable the only Chinese aircraft carrier (Liaoning) to operate much farther from its base and for longer periods. So far Liaoning and its escorts had not operated much farther than onboard fuel allowed. A second carrier, similar in design to the Liaoning, is nearly completed and expected to enter service by 2020 as are more Type 901s, with one more 901 already under construction.
The Type 901 is the largest (over 40,000 tons) replenishment ship China has produced and similar in size and capability to the twelve American T-AKE replenishment ships. The 40,000 ton T-AKEs service a much larger fleet than the Type 903s and Type 901s. The T-AKEs are part of a larger replenishment fleet required by American warships operating worldwide. But China has been expanding its replenishment ship force as it puts more warships into service and expects to eventually (by the 2030s) to rival the U.S. Navy worldwide.
The Type 901 has a top speed of 45 kilometers an hour (to keep up with a carrier task force) and room topside for two or more CIWS autocannon (similar to the American Phalanx) for anti-missile defense. At least one more Type 901 appears to be planned but the Chinese usually wait until a new ship type has a year or so at sea before more are ordered. The Type 901 seems more influenced by the four 48,000 ton T-AOE fast (45 kilometers an hour) supply ships the U.S. put into service during the mid-1990s. These are now being retired because the slower (37 kilometers an hour) T-AKEs and other supply ships got the job done more efficiently and cheaply. This is partly because the United States has access to more overseas ports for resupplying and refueling its carrier task forces.
Meanwhile, other types of Chinese supply ships are appearing. In early 2016 China revealed a new, smaller (2,700 ton) replenishment ship for its growing number of island bases in the South China Sea. This is a RO/RO (Roll On/Roll Off) type ship so it is easier to drive vehicles off onto the docks being built on many of these tiny (some man-made) islands. The new ship also has a helicopter pad for small (four ton) helicopters like the Z-9. One of these new ships appeared in late 2015 and apparently more are being built. They will replace the collection of commercial ships currently used to resupply these island bases.
Meanwhile, China has eight of its 25,000 ton Type 903A replenishment ships in service. During the first half of 2015 four of these ships were under construction simultaneously, a rare event for any country in peacetime. Since 2013 there has been a massive acceleration in the production of these ships. The first two of these tanker/cargo ships appeared in 2004. By 2008 these ships were regularly at sea supporting the task forces (each with at least two warships, plus the Type 903) sent to the anti-piracy patrol off Somalia for six month tours (which included additional port visits on the way home). The replenishment ship did just that, supplying fuel, water, food, and other supplies as needed. The replenishment ship would go to local ports to restock its depleted stores and return to the task force. China needed more Type 903s support the growing number of long distance training operations into the Western Pacific and the government has responded. One reason Chinese warships are now being seen all over the world (on official visits and to show off) is because there are enough replenishment ships to support this sort of thing.
With more long distance cruises China has, since the 1990s, trained more and more of its sailors to resupply ships at sea. It’s now common to see a Chinese supply ship in the Western Pacific refueling two warships at once. This is a tricky maneuver and the Chinese did not learn overnight. They have been doing this more and more since 2004, first refueling one ship at a time with the receiving ship behind the supply ship and then the trickier side-by-side method. This enables skilled supply ship crews to refuel two ships at once.
China got a sharp reminder of how essential the replenishment ships are in April 2014 when they joined the international military effort to find missing flight MH370. China discovered it did not have enough Type 903s and without access to foreign ports for resupply the Chinese Navy could not sustain large numbers of ships far from China. Chinese naval planners have long warned of this and the political leaders are now paying more attention. China sent two dozen warships and support vessels into the southern Indian Ocean in April 2014 and it was obvious that without access to nearby Australian ports the Chinese ships would not have been able to remain in the area for long.
The classic solution to this problem is a large fleet of support (“sustainment”) ships to constantly deliver food, fuel and other supplies to ships at sea. China is rapidly building such ships, but not enough of them to maintain a large force for an extended period. China is unlikely to obtain the overseas ports it needs to support its current expansion plans because Chinese expansion plans have angered nearly all the nations in area. China does have a few allies, like Pakistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Burma. This would not be enough if it came to outright hostilities and some of these friendly ports blocked by neighboring countries that are at odds with China. This apparently led to the decision to build the Type 903.
This logistical weakness is no secret but the Chinese have long played it down. After the April 2014 search for flight MH370 it became a much more visible issue. The MH370 search off west Australia was the largest Chinese fleet deployment in modern times. The made it clear that China could not yet keep warships at sea for long periods. This made the Chinese naval threat a bit less intimidating. But it was also obvious that this changes as China builds more sustainment ships and uses them regularly. That has been happening since 2014.
This is all part of a Chinese navy effort to enable its most modern ships to carry out long duration operations. In addition to the ships sent to Somalia, the Chinese have been sending flotillas (containing landing ships, destroyers, and frigates) on 10-20 day cruises into the East China Sea and beyond.
The Chinese have been working hard on how to use their new classes of supply ships most effectively. These vessels are built to efficiently supply ships at sea. In addition to learning how to transfer these supplies at sea the crews have also learned how to keep all the needed supplies in good shape and stocked in the required quantities. This requires the procurement officers learning how to arrange resupply at local ports in a timely basis. This was particularly important off Somalia, where warships often had to speed up (burning a lot of fuel in the process) or use their helicopters to deal with the pirates.
Modern at-sea replenishment methods were developed out of necessity by the United States during World War II because of a lack of sufficient forward bases in the vast Pacific. The resulting service squadrons (Servrons) became a permanent fixture in the U.S. Navy after the war. Since World War II ships frequently stay at sea for up to six months at a time, being resupplied at sea by a Servron. New technologies were developed to support the effective use of the seagoing supply service. Few other navies have been able to match this capability, mainly because of the expense of the Servron ships and the training required to do at sea replenishment. China is buying into this capability, which makes their fleet more effective because warships can remain at sea for longer periods.
This article is copyrighted and republished with permission from our friends at Strategy Page.
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